C = D x V x F > R

If You Are Interested In Organizational Change, You’ll Be Interested In Richard Beckhard’s Famous Equation   C = D x V x F > R

Change = Dissatisfaction X Vision X First Steps > Resistance

C = Change 

??? What change do you want for yourself? 

D = Dissatisfaction with Current Situation 

??? On a scale of 1-10 (Low-High), how dissatisfied are you/others with the current situation. 

V = Vision of a Desired/Preferred Situation 

??? Describe in detail and sketch/diagram the preferred situation – the result you’re wanting to create.

F = First Steps Toward Vision

??? What 3 things need to happen immediately to create the preferred situation?




R = Resistance

??? What resistance might you anticipate?



??? On a scale of 1-10 (Low-High), how strong might the resistance be?

Richard Beckhard, Organizational Transitions, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, 1987 




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